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Powerlifting discussion on Injury rates, within the Bodybuilding Forum; Original Article will be linked later... I am going to add to this over time, then probably re-do the thread ...


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Old 09-16-2008, 04:19 PM   #1
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Default Injury rates

Original Article will be linked later...

I am going to add to this over time, then probably re-do the thread once I have enough data. Right now I am simply going to pillage other sites, and then add thinks from hardcopy later.

This is for anyone who wishes to assert that machines are safer. They are, of course, quite incorrect.

Basic statistics of various athletic pursuits. Worth noting that OL'ing, which uses barbells almost exclusively, has a lower injury rate that PL'ing, which still, of course, focuses on moving the bar, and simple 'weight training' has a higher injury rate than either one.

Injury Potential of Weight Training
Weight training injury rates are low.

General Population (Powell et al. 1998)
Athletes (Hamill 1994, Zemper 1990)


Sports Injury Rates (Hamill 1994) Sport
Injuries (per 100 hours)

Soccer (school age) 6.20
UK Rugby 1.92
USA Basketball 0.03
UK Cross Country 0.37
Squash 0.10
US Football 0.10
Badminton 0.05
USA Gymnastics 0.044
USA Powerlifting 0.0027
USA Volleyball 0.0013
USA Tennis 0.001
Weight Training 0.0035 (85,733 hrs)
Weightlifting 0.0017 (168,551 hrs)

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Old 09-16-2008, 04:19 PM   #2
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Free weights do not produce more injuries, compared to machines (Ralph et al. 1993).

Weightlifting injuries are lower than those sustained in other sports (Hamill 1994, Stone 1990, Stone et al. 1993).

Rhea (2003) suggests there is no practical difference in injury rate between using free weights or machines in healthy adults.

Requa RK, DeAvilla LN, Garrick JG. (1993) Injuries in recreational adult fitness activities. Am J Sports Med, 21(3):461-7.

Injuries sustained during weightlifting training and weightlifting competition are substantially lower than injuries incurred from other sports such as football, gymnastics, or basketball.

Stone MH (1990). Muscle conditioning and muscle injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 22(4):457-462.

HEPELS, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608.

Empirical and objective data suggest that muscle and connective tissue can undergo adaptations to physical training resulting in greater tissue mass and increased maximum tensile strength. These adaptations are especially apparent as a result of load bearing and resistive training. Furthermore, information is presented suggesting that pre-conditioning and in-season muscle conditioning, especially strength training, reduce injuries among athletes. Additionally, a theoretical model of training, "periodization", is offered as a method of increasing performance to maximum or optimal values while reducing overtraining and injury potential. Periodization of training can reduce overtraining potential and injury potential while optimizing performance by variation of volume, intensity, and exercise selection during a training program.

PMID: 2205781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


In college football players, time lost from injuries during weight training amounted to 1% of the time lost from injuries during football participation.

Zemper ED (1990). Four-year study of weight-room injuries in a national sample of college football teams. N atl Strength Cond Assoc J. 12(3):32-34.


Will actually look up and post the rest of the abstracts later.
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Old 09-16-2008, 04:20 PM   #3
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Biomechanics of the deadlift
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Aug;33(8):1345-53.
Biomechanical analysis of the deadlift during the 1999 Special Olympics World Games.
Escamilla RF, Lowry TM, Osbahr DC, Speer KP.

Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

PURPOSE: Improper lifting techniques may increase injury risks and decrease performance. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast biomechanical parameters between sumo and conventional style deadlifts and between high- and low-skilled lifters who participated in the powerlifting event during the 1999 Special Olympics World Games. METHODS: Two synchronized video cameras collected 60 Hz of data from 40 subjects. Parameters were quantified at barbell liftoff (LO), when the barbell passed the knees (KP), and at lift completion. RESULTS: Compared with the conventional group, the sumo group had a 100% greater stance width, 20% smaller hand width, 10% less vertical bar distance, a more vertical trunk at LO, a more horizontal thigh at LO and KP, a less vertical shank at KP, and greater forefoot abduction. The sumo group generated ankle dorsiflexor, knee extensor, and hip extensor moments, whereas the conventional group produced ankle plantar flexor, knee flexor and extensor, and hip extensor moments. Compared with low-skilled lifters, high-skilled lifters had a 40% greater barbell load, 15% greater stance width (sumo group only), greater knee flexion at LO (conventional group only), greater knee extension at KP, a less vertical shank position at LO (sumo group only), 15% less vertical bar distance, less first peak bar velocity between LO and KP (conventional group only), smaller plantar flexor and hip extensor moment arms at LO and KP, and greater knee extensor moment arms at LO. CONCLUSIONS: The sumo deadlift may be more effective in working ankle dorsiflexors and knee extensors, whereas the conventional deadlift may be more effective in working ankle plantar flexors and knee flexors. High-skilled lifters exhibited better lifting mechanics than low-skilled lifters by keeping the bar closer to the body, which may both enhance performance and minimize injury risk.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Jul;32(7):1265-75.
A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts.
Escamilla RF, Francisco AC, Fleisig GS, Barrentine SW, Welch CM, Kayes AV, Speer KP, Andrews JR.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

PURPOSE: Strength athletes often employ the deadlift in their training or rehabilitation regimens. The purpose of this study was to quantify kinematic and kinetic parameters by employing a three-dimensional analysis during sumo and conventional style deadlifts. METHODS: Two 60-Hz video cameras recorded 12 sumo and 12 conventional style lifters during a national powerlifting championship. Parameters were quantified at barbell liftoff (LO), at the instant the barbell passed the knees (KP), and at lift completion. Unpaired t-tests (P < 0.05) were used to compare all parameters. RESULTS: At LO and KP, thigh position was 11-16 degrees more horizontal for the sumo group, whereas the knees and hips extended approximately 12 degrees more for the conventional group. The sumo group had 5-10 degrees greater vertical trunk and thigh positions, employed a wider stance (70 +/- 11 cm vs 32 +/- 8 cm), turned their feet out more (42 +/- 8 vs 14 +/- 6 degrees). and gripped the bar with their hands closer together (47 +/- 4 cm vs 55 +/- 10 cm). Vertical bar distance, mechanical work, and predicted energy expenditure were approximately 25-40% greater in the conventional group. Hip extensor, knee extensor, and ankle dorsiflexor moments were generated for the sumo group, whereas hip extensor, knee extensor, knee flexor, and ankle plantar flexor moments were generated for the conventional group. Ankle and knee moments and moment arms were significantly different between the sumo and conventional groups, whereas hip moments and moments arms did not show any significantly differences. Three-dimensional calculations were more accurate and significantly different than two-dimensional calculations, especially for the sumo deadlift. CONCLUSIONS: Biomechanical differences between sumo and conventional deadlifts result from technique variations between these exercises. Understanding these differences will aid the strength coach or rehabilitation specialist in determining which deadlift style an athlete or patient should employ.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Apr;34(4):682-8.Click here to read Links
An electromyographic analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts.
Escamilla RF, Francisco AC, Kayes AV, Speer KP, Moorman CT 3rd.

Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3435, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

PURPOSE: Strength athletes often employ the deadlift in their training or rehabilitation regimens. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity between sumo and conventional style deadlifts, and between belt and no-belt conditions. METHODS: Six cameras collected 60-Hz video data and 960-Hz electromyographic data from 13 collegiate football players who performed sumo and conventional deadlifts with and without a lifting belt, employing a 12-RM intensity. Variables measured were knee angles and EMG measurements from 16 muscles. Muscle activity were averaged and compared within three 30-degree knee angle intervals from 90 to 0 degrees during the ascent, and three 30-degree knee angle intervals from 0 to 90 degrees during the descent. RESULTS: Overall EMG activity from the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and tibialis anterior were significantly greater in the sumo deadlift, whereas overall EMG activity from the medial gastrocnemius was significantly greater in the conventional deadlift. Compared with the no-belt condition, the belt condition produced significantly greater rectus abdominis activity and significantly less external oblique activity. For most muscles, EMG activity was significantly greater in the knee extending intervals compared with the corresponding knee flexing intervals. Quadriceps, tibialis anterior, hip adductor, gluteus maximus, L3 and T12 paraspinal, and middle trapezius activity were significantly greater in higher knee flexion intervals compared with lower knee flexion intervals, whereas hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and upper trapezius activity were greater in lower knee flexion intervals compared with higher knee flexion intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes may choose to employ either the sumo or conventional deadlift style, depending on which muscles are considered most important according to their training protocols. Moderate to high co-contractions from the quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius imply that the deadlift may be an effective closed kinetic chain exercise for strength athletes to employ during knee rehabilitation.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985 Oct;17(5):554-66.
Kinematics and kinetics of the dead lift in adolescent power lifters.
Brown EW, Abani K.

This study documented characteristics of the dead lift of teenage lifters. Films of 10 "skilled" and 11 "unskilled" contestants in a Michigan Teenage Powerlifting Championship provided data for analysis. Equations of motion, force, and moments were developed for a multisegment model of the lifters' movement in the sagittal plane and applied to the film data. Analysis was limited to 1) body segment orientations, 2) vertical bar accelerations, 3) vertical joint reaction forces, 4) segmental angular accelerations, 5) horizontal moment arms of the bar to selected joints, and 6) intersegmental resultant moments. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) in body segment orientation indicated a more upright posture at lift-off in the skilled group. Maximum vertical bar acceleration and angular acceleration of the trunk tended to occur near lift-off in the skilled lifters. The unskilled subjects demonstrated greater variability and magnitude in linear and angular acceleration parameters. In all lifters, maximum vertical force was experienced at the ankle joint. Within each subject, the hip joint experienced the greatest torque because of the relatively large horizontal moment arm of the bar (dominant mass in the system) to this joint. In all subjects, the magnitude of the mass lifted, and not the technique, was the primary determinant in the intersegmental resultant moment acting at the hip and the vertical force experienced at the ankle, knee, and hip joints.
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Old 09-16-2008, 04:21 PM   #4
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Squat biomechanics
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jun;33(6):984-98.Click here to read Links
A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the squat during varying stance widths.
Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Lowry TM, Barrentine SW, Andrews JR.

Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify biomechanical parameters employing two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) analyses while performing the squat with varying stance widths. METHODS: Two 60-Hz cameras recorded 39 lifters during a national powerlifting championship. Stance width was normalized by shoulder width (SW), and three stance groups were defined: 1) narrow stance squat (NS), 107 +/- 10% SW; 2) medium stance squat (MS), 142 +/- 12% SW; and 3) wide stance squat (WS), 169 +/- 12% SW. RESULTS: Most biomechanical differences among the three stance groups and between 2-D and 3-D analyses occurred between the NS and WS. Compared with the NS at 45 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion angle (KF), the hips flexed 6-11 degrees more and the thighs were 7-12 degrees more horizontal during the MS and WS. Compared with the NS at 90 degrees and maximum KF, the shanks were 5-9 degrees more vertical and the feet were turned out 6 degrees more during the WS. No significant differences occurred in trunk positions. Hip and thigh angles were 3-13 degrees less in 2-D compared with 3-D analyses. Ankle plantar flexor (10-51 N.m), knee extensor (359-573 N.m), and hip extensor (275-577 N.m) net muscle moments were generated for the NS, whereas ankle dorsiflexor (34-284 N.m), knee extensor (447-756 N.m), and hip extensor (382-628 N.m) net muscle moments were generated for the MS and WS. Significant differences in ankle and knee moment arms between 2-D and 3-D analyses were 7-9 cm during the NS, 12-14 cm during the MS, and 16-18 cm during the WS. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle plantar flexor net muscle moments were generated during the NS, ankle dorsiflexor net muscle moments were produced during the MS and WS, and knee and hip moments were greater during the WS compared with the NS. A 3-D biomechanical analysis of the squat is more accurate than a 2-D biomechanical analysis, especially during the WS.

J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Nov;17(4):629-33.Links
Effect of knee position on hip and knee torques during the barbell squat.
Fry AC, Smith JC, Schilling BK.

Human Performance Laboratories, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152, USA.

Some recommendations suggest keeping the shank as vertical as possible during the barbell squat, thus keeping the knees from moving past the toes. This study examined joint kinetics occurring when forward displacement of the knees is restricted vs. when such movement is not restricted. Seven weight-trained men (mean +/- SD; age = 27.9 +/- 5.2 years) were videotaped while performing 2 variations of parallel barbell squats (barbell load = body weight). Either the knees were permitted to move anteriorly past the toes (unrestricted) or a wooden barrier prevented the knees from moving anteriorly past the toes (restricted). Differences resulted between static knee and hip torques for both types of squat as well as when both squat variations were compared with each other (p < 0.05). For the unrestricted squat, knee torque (N.m; mean +/- SD) = 150.1 +/- 50.8 and hip torque = 28.2 +/- 65.0. For the restricted squat, knee torque = 117.3 +/- 34.2 and hip torque = 302.7 +/- 71.2. Restricted squats also produced more anterior lean of the trunk and shank and a greater internal angle at the knees and ankles. The squat technique used can affect the distribution of forces between the knees and hips and on the kinematic properties of the exercise. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Although restricting forward movement of the knees may minimize stress on the knees, it is likely that forces are inappropriately transferred to the hips and low-back region. Thus, appropriate joint loading during this exercise may require the knees to move slightly past the toes.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jan;33(1):127-41.Click here to read Links
Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise.
Escamilla RF.

Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

PURPOSE: Because a strong and stable knee is paramount to an athlete's or patient's success, an understanding of knee biomechanics while performing the squat is helpful to therapists, trainers, sports medicine physicians, researchers, coaches, and athletes who are interested in closed kinetic chain exercises, knee rehabilitation, and training for sport. The purpose of this review was to examine knee biomechanics during the dynamic squat exercise. METHODS: Tibiofemoral shear and compressive forces, patellofemoral compressive force, knee muscle activity, and knee stability were reviewed and discussed relative to athletic performance, injury potential, and rehabilitation. RESULTS: Low to moderate posterior shear forces, restrained primarily by the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), were generated throughout the squat for all knee flexion angles. Low anterior shear forces, restrained primarily by the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), were generated between 0 and 60 degrees knee flexion. Patellofemoral compressive forces and tibiofemoral compressive and shear forces progressively increased as the knees flexed and decreased as the knees extended, reaching peak values near maximum knee flexion. Hence, training the squat in the functional range between 0 and 50 degrees knee flexion may be appropriate for many knee rehabilitation patients, because knee forces were minimum in the functional range. Quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius activity generally increased as knee flexion increased, which supports athletes with healthy knees performing the parallel squat (thighs parallel to ground at maximum knee flexion) between 0 and 100 degrees knee flexion. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the parallel squat was not injurious to the healthy knee. CONCLUSIONS: The squat was shown to be an effective exercise to employ during cruciate ligament or patellofemoral rehabilitation. For athletes with healthy knees, performing the parallel squat is recommended over the deep squat, because injury potential to the menisci and cruciate and collateral ligaments may increase with the deep squat. The squat does not compromise knee stability, and can enhance stability if performed correctly. Finally, the squat can be effective in developing hip, knee, and ankle musculature, because moderate to high quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius activity were produced during the squat.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Apr;30(4):556-69.
Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises.
Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, Barrentine SW, Wilk KE, Andrews JR.

American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA.

PURPOSE: Although closed (CKCE) and open (OKCE) kinetic chain exercises are used in athletic training and clinical environments, few studies have compared knee joint biomechanics while these exercises are performed dynamically. The purpose of this study was to quantify knee forces and muscle activity in CKCE (squat and leg press) and OKCE (knee extension). METHODS: Ten male subjects performed three repetitions of each exercise at their 12-repetition maximum. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data were calculated using video cameras (60 Hz), force transducers (960 Hz), and EMG (960 Hz). Mathematical muscle modeling and optimization techniques were employed to estimate internal muscle forces. RESULTS: Overall, the squat generated approximately twice as much hamstring activity as the leg press and knee extensions. Quadriceps muscle activity was greatest in CKCE when the knee was near full flexion and in OKCE when the knee was near full extension. OKCE produced more rectus femoris activity while CKCE produced more vasti muscle activity. Tibiofemoral compressive force was greatest in CKCE near full flexion and in OKCE near full extension. Peak tension in the posterior cruciate ligament was approximately twice as great in CKCE, and increased with knee flexion. Tension in the anterior cruciate ligament was present only in OKCE, and occurred near full extension. Patellofemoral compressive force was greatest in CKCE near full flexion and in the mid-range of the knee extending phase in OKCE. CONCLUSION: An understanding of these results can help in choosing appropriate exercises for rehabilitation and training.

Interesting comparative study:

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Sep;33(9):1552-66.
Effects of technique variations on knee biomechanics during the squat and leg press.
Escamilla RF, Fleisig GS, Zheng N, Lander JE, Barrentine SW, Andrews JR, Bergemann BW, Moorman CT 3rd.

Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and Duke Sports Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. rescamil@duke.edu

PURPOSE: The specific aim of this project was to quantify knee forces and muscle activity while performing squat and leg press exercises with technique variations. METHODS: Ten experienced male lifters performed the squat, a high foot placement leg press (LPH), and a low foot placement leg press (LPL) employing a wide stance (WS), narrow stance (NS), and two foot angle positions (feet straight and feet turned out 30 degrees ). RESULTS: No differences were found in muscle activity or knee forces between foot angle variations. The squat generated greater quadriceps and hamstrings activity than the LPH and LPL, the WS-LPH generated greater hamstrings activity than the NS-LPH, whereas the NS squat produced greater gastrocnemius activity than the WS squat. No ACL forces were produced for any exercise variation. Tibiofemoral (TF) compressive forces, PCL tensile forces, and patellofemoral (PF) compressive forces were generally greater in the squat than the LPH and LPL, and there were no differences in knee forces between the LPH and LPL. For all exercises, the WS generated greater PCL tensile forces than the NS, the NS produced greater TF and PF compressive forces than the WS during the LPH and LPL, whereas the WS generated greater TF and PF compressive forces than the NS during the squat. For all exercises, muscle activity and knee forces were generally greater in the knee extending phase than the knee flexing phase. CONCLUSIONS: The greater muscle activity and knee forces in the squat compared with the LPL and LPH implies the squat may be more effective in muscle development but should be used cautiously in those with PCL and PF disorders, especially at greater knee flexion angles. Because all forces increased with knee flexion, training within the functional 0-50 degrees range may be efficacious for those whose goal is to minimize knee forces. The lack of ACL forces implies that all exercises may be effective during ACL rehabilitation.
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Old 09-16-2008, 04:22 PM   #5
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More stats (general)
Am J Sports Med. 1993 May-Jun;21(3):461-7.
Injuries in recreational adult fitness activities.
Requa RK, DeAvilla LN, Garrick JG.

Center for Sports Medicine, Saint Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco, California.

Volunteers (986) from fitness clubs and studios were recruited and followed for a 3-month period to document the injury consequences of adult recreational fitness participation. Participants were telephoned each week and their activities as well as any injuries that occurred were recorded. Of the 525 injuries and complaints reported during 60,629 hours of activity, 475 occurred as a result of sports participation for an overall rate of 7.83 per 1000 hours of participation. Seventy-six percent of these episodes caused the patient to alter or miss 1 or more activities, while 9.5% involved a physician visit. The rate for time-loss injuries was less than 2 per person per year (1.76 per 298 hours) or 5.92 per 1000 hours. Running had a higher risk of injury compared with most other individual sports. Cardiovascular fitness activities had low to medium rates, as did weight work; competitive sports were higher. For 6 of the most commonly injured areas, the reinjury rate was about twice that reported for those with no history of previous injury. The risks of injury from most recreational fitness activities were relatively modest, particularly if the activities were not competitive. Physicians might help patients reduce their risks of injury by encouraging suitable activities and by reducing the risks of reinjury by implementing appropriate rehabilitation programs.

Inj Prev. 2003 Jun;9(2):117-23.Click here to read Click here to read

Sports and recreation related injury episodes in the US population, 1997-99.
Conn JM, Annest JL, Gilchrist J.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. jconn@cdc.gov

OBJECTIVE: To characterize sports and recreation related (SR) injury episodes in the US population. SR activities are growing in popularity suggesting the need for increased awareness of SR injuries as a public health concern for physically active persons of all ages in the US population. SETTING: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a face-to-face household survey conducted yearly by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Demographic and health data are collected from a nationally representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population residing in the US. METHODS: Medically attended injury events reported in the 1997-99 Injury Section of the NHIS were categorized according to the associated sport or recreational activity using a classification scheme based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury system. Episodes where the injured person received any type of medical attention (that is, medical advice or treatment) from any health care provider were used to report the incidence, severity, and nature of SR injuries sustained by US citizens. RESULTS: Annually, an estimated seven million Americans received medical attention for SR injuries (25.9 injury episodes per 1000 population). For 5-24 year olds, this national estimate was about 42% higher than estimates based on SR injuries seen only in emergency departments over a similar time frame. The highest average annual SR injury episode rates were for children ages 5-14 years (59.3 per 1000 persons) and persons aged 15-24 years (56.4 per 1000 persons). The SR injury episode rate for males was more than twice the rate for females. The age adjusted injury rate for whites was 1.5 times higher than for blacks (28.8 v 19.0 per 1000 population). Basketball was the most frequently mentioned SR activity when the injury episode occurred, with a rate of about four injury events per 1000 population. Strains and sprains accounted for 31% of injury episodes. An estimated 1.1 million SR episode related injuries involve the head or neck region, of which 17% were internal head injuries. The most common mechanisms of injury were struck by/against (34%), fall (28%), and overexertion (13%). CONCLUSION: As physical activity continues to be promoted as part of a healthy lifestyle, SR injuries are becoming an important public health concern for both children and adults. Prevention efforts aimed at reducing SR injuries through targeting high risk activities, places of occurrence, activity, risk behaviors, and use of protective devices need to go beyond focusing on children and also consider physically active adults.

Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Mar;37(3):301-8.Click here to read
Emergency visits for sports-related injuries.
Burt CW, Overpeck MD.

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA. cwb2@cdc.gov

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the effect and magnitude of patients with sports-related injuries presenting to hospital emergency departments in the United States and to examine differences in patient and visit characteristics between sports- and nonsports-related injuries. METHODS: Data from the 1997 and 1998 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a national probabilistic sample of 496 US hospital EDs, were combined to examine emergency visits for sports-related injuries. Data from 16,997 sample ED encounter records for injuries that included narrative cause of injury text were analyzed. Narrative text entries were coded to 1 of 84 sport and recreational activity codes. Sample weights were applied to provide annual national estimates. Estimates of sports-related injury visits were based on 1,775 records with an assigned sports-related activity code. RESULTS: There were an average annual estimated 2.6 million emergency visits for sports-related injuries by persons between the ages of 5 and 24 years. They accounted for over 68% of the total 3.7 million sport injuries presented to the ED by persons of all ages. As a proportion of all kinds of injuries presenting to the ED, sports-related injuries accounted for more than one fifth of the visits by persons 5 to 24 years old. The use rate was 33.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons in this age group (95% confidence interval 30.3 to 37.5). The sports-related injury visit rate for male patients was more than double the rate for female patients (48.2 versus 19.2 per 1,000 persons between 5 and 24 years of age). Visits from sports-related activities for this age group were more frequent for basketball and cycling compared with other categories (eg, baseball, skateboarding, gymnastics). Compared with nonsports-related injuries for this age group, sports-related injuries were more likely to be to the brain or skull and upper and lower extremities. Patients with sports-related injuries were more likely to have a diagnosis of fracture and sprain or strain and less likely to have an open wound. They were also more likely to have diagnostic and therapeutic services provided, especially orthopedic care. CONCLUSION: Sports-related activities by school-age children and young adults produce a significant amount of emergency medical use in the United States. The ED is an appropriate venue to target injury prevention counseling.
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Old 09-16-2008, 04:22 PM   #6
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Source: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showth...hp?t=110612181

I haven't read all this....I've read some of the initial posts though...this is my bed time reading for tonight
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