Exercise Descriptions, Common Terms, Abbreviations
Below is a list of commonly used terms and their meanings. Before you ask what something means, try to check here first.
This list will constantly be updated so feel free to add suggestions in the form of a reply and they will be added in.
17 AA = 17 Alpha Alkylated
AAS = Anabolic Androgenic Steroid
Abduction = moving a limb away from the midline of the body. An example is moving an arm from the side of the body to shoulder height.
Adduction= moving a limb toward the midline of the body. An example is bringing the arm to the side from an extended position at the shoulder.
Acclimitization = gradual adaptation to a changed environment, such as higher or lower tempuratures, higher altitudes, etc..
Accomodation = refers to the process by which the response to constant stimuli decreases with repeated application. Novel and beneficial stressors yield “supercompensation” whereas monotonous/detrimental stressors yield stagnation or decay.
ADP = adenosine diphosphate
Aerobic Exercise = With Oxygen. Prolonged moderate intensity exercise that uses up oxygen at a rate at or below the the level that cardiorespiratory system can replenish it. Examples are running, walking, cycling, and swimming. Develops cardorespirotory fitness and is used to burn fat to achieve maximum defintion, but can be highly catabolic if done in excess.
Agonist = muscle that is contracting during a movement and which is primarily responsible for the movement of a certain bodypart.
Alternated grip = one hand suppinated and the other pronated.
AMP = adenosine monophosphate
Anabolism = from the Greek: anabole, "to build up". The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue, or more simply, where larger molecules are built up from smaller ones. The process involving a sequence of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units, usually requiring input of energy (ATP) in the process, that energy being derived from catabolic processes. The building up of proteins from amino acids is an example.
Anerobic Exercise = higher intensity exercise than aerobic exercise which uses up oxygen more quickly than it can be replenished in the muscles. Bodybuilding is anerobic exercise and it burns up muscle glycogen to supply energy to the working muscles.
Antagonist = a muscle that counteracts, slows down, or stops the movement of the agonist. It lengthens when the agonist contracts. It assists in joint stabilization and braking the limb at the end of a fast movement.
Anterior = Front
AR = Androgen Receptor
AS= Anabolic Steroids
ATF = Ass to Floor
ATG = Ass to Grass
ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate – provides the energy for muscle contraction and thus all human movement.
AxB= reps times sets
BB = Body Builder or Body Building
BCAA = branched chain amino acids. Valine, isoleucine, and leucine.
Biaxial Joints = Such as the ankle and wrist. They allow movement about two perpendicular axis.
BiD = twice a day
Bilateral = Two sides or both sides.
Biomechanics = the physics of human motion. A study of the forces produced by and acting on the body. There are three terms associated with biomechanics: kinematics, kinetics, and kinesiology.
BF% = Body Fat %
BMR= Basal metabolic rate. Refers to the amount of heat produced by the body druing resting conditions. Reflects the minimum level of energy required to sustain the body's vital functions in the waking state.
BW= Body Weight
Cardinal Planes = three imaginary planes which bisect the body in three dimensions.
Cartilaginous Joints = joints which allow only limited movement, such as the intervertebral discs
Catabolism = from the Greek, katabole, meaning “‘throwing down’”. The metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy. The process involving a series of degradative chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, usually releasing energy in the process.
CEE= Creatine Ethyl Ester
Cervical Spine = Also known as the neck, is comprised of seven vertebral bodies (C1-C7) that make up the upper most part of the spine. These vertebrae connect the spine to the skull.
Circuit Training = going form on exercise to another (10 to 20) as quickly as possible in a circuit around the gym, keeping the pulse rate high. A rest period of two to five minutes is taken and then the circuit is repeated for a planned number of times.
Circumduction= movement in 360 degree range (circle arm around)
CLEN = Clenbuterol
CM= Citrulline Malate
CNS= Central Nervous System
Compound Exercise = Also called a basic exercise. Multi-joint movement that involves a large number of muscles (and generally the largest muscle groups like thighs, back or chest) and enable you to lift the heaviest weights. Examples are squats, bench presses, deadlifts, and pull-ups.
Concentric Movement = the part of a movement where the muscle shortens or contracts. It is the lifting part of the exercise such as when you press a barbell from your chest. Also called the positive.
CYP= Testosterone Cypionate
DART = Syringe/Needle
DB = Dumbell
DBOL= Dianabol (Methandrostenolone)
DECA= Nandrolone Decanoate
Detraining = the loss of training adaptations due to prolonged abstinense from training. The time course of detraining is different for different adaptations with aerobic endurance training being quickest to detrain and strength training being much slower.
Dislocation = the complete displacement of a joint surface often resulted in severe laxity or instability
Distal= The more (or most) distant of two (or more) things. For example, the distal end of the femur (the thigh bone) is the end down by the knee; the end more distant from the torso. The end more distant from the torso or trunk. The opposite of distal is proximal.
DMSO= Dimethyl Sulfoxide - Topical enhancer
DOMS = delayed-onset muscle soreness
DNP = Dinitrophenol
Eccentric Movement = the part of a movement where the muscle elongates. When you lower the weight back to the starting position. Also called the negative.
ED = Every Day
EFA = essential fatty acid
EPOC = Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption
Epimysium = fibrous connective tissue that covers the body’s more than 430 skeletal muscles (deep fascia)
EOD = Every other day
EQ= Equipoise (Boldenone Undecylenate)
Extension = increase joint angle (tricep extension, leg extension)
Fatty Acid = an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogens attached and an acid group at each end
Flexion = decrease joint angle (bicep curl)
Fibrous Joints = joints which allow virtually no movement, such as the sutures of the skull
FINA = Finaplix (Trenbolone Acetate)
Frontal Plane = (coronal or lateral cardinal plane) line which splits the body vertically into front and back halves of equal weight. See sagittal and transverse.
GH = Growth Hormone
GI= Glycemic Index
Golycerol= an organic alcohol composed of a three-carbon chain which can serve as the backbone for a triglyceride. When free, glycerol has a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon and when part of a triglyceride, each carbon is attached throught an oxygen bridge to a fatty acid.
Glycolysis = the breakdown of carbohydrates (gycogen or free glucose) to produce ATP
GVT=German volume training
GYNO = Gynomastica (Bitch tits)
HIIT= High intensity interval training
HIT= High intensity training
Hook grip = grip where the index and middle fingers are wrapped around the thumb, which is palced against the bar first, with the ring and little fingers holding the bar rather loosely which can add up to 10% to any pulling motion used.
HPTA = Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis
HST= Hypertrophy Specific Training
IGF = Insulin Growth Factor
Inferior = lower (closer to the feet), or below (as opposed to superior)
INJ= Inject, Injection
Intensity= Normally expressed as the percentage of weight you are lifting relative to your one rep maximum. In other words, how much weight is on the bar in relation to your maximal ability
Interval Training = exercise session where the intensity and duration of exercise are conciously alternated between harder and easier work; often used to improve capacity or endurance
Intraabdominal Pressure = pressure generated within the abdominal cavity when the diaphragm and deep torso muscles contract. This aids in supporting the vertebral column during lifting by means of the abdominal tissue and fluid being kept under pressure by contraction of the surroundking muscles (“the fluid ball”). See also ‘valsalva maneuver’.
Isokinetic Contraction = muscle contraction against a resistance that moves at a constant velocity, so that the maximum force of which the muscle is capable throughout the rom can be applied.
Isometric Action = muscle action where the muscle attempts to contract against and immovable object. Sometimes erroneously called “isometric contraction” although there is no significant shortening of the muscle.
Isotonic Contraction = muscle contraction against a constant resistance, as in lifting a weight…basically all free-weight training.
Joints = the junctions of bones
Ketosis = an elevated level of ketone bodies in the tissues seen in sufferers of starvation or diabetes, and a symptom brought about in dieters on very low carbohydrate diets.
Kinematics= the termporal and spatial characteristics of motion
Kinesiology = the science of motion. It can be termed applied functional anatomy.
Kinetics= forces that act upon, cause, modify, facilitate, or inhibit motion.
KG or kg= kilograms = 2.2 lbs (or #)
Lateral= In anatomy, the side of the body or a body part that is farther from the middle or center of the body. Typically, lateral refers to the outer side of the body part, but it is also used to refer to the side of a body part. For example, when referring to the knee, lateral refers to the side of the knee farthest from the opposite knee. The opposite of lateral is medial.
LH = Leutenizing Hormone
lb or # = pound(s)
Lordosis = Inward curvature of the spine. Normally, for example, the low back demonstrates lordosis. A normal slightly arched lower back is referred to as lordortic or ‘arched’. ROUNDED is the opposite of this and would be termed as Kyphotic.
MCG= Micrograms mcg=micrograms
ME= Maximum Effort
Medial = Pertaining to the middle; in or toward the middle; nearer the middle of the body. Medial is as opposed to lateral. For example, the medial side of the knee is the side closest to the other knee whereas the lateral side of the knee is the outside of the knee. The side of the body or bdy part that is nearer to the middle or centre (median) of the body. For example, when referring to the knee, medial would mean the side of the knee that is closest to the other knee the opposite of medial is lateral.
Metabolism = From the Greek, metabole, meaning “change” .The process involving a set of chemical reactions that modifies a molecule into another for storage, or for immediate use in another reaction or as a by product. It is made up of catabolism and anabolism and can be described as the total of all the catabolic and anabolic actions in a system. This includes processes for cell growth, reproduction, response to environment, survival mechanisms, sustenance, and maintenance of cell structure and integrity.
MG = Milligrams mg=milligrams
ML = Milliliters
Muscle Insertion = The distal (away from the center of body) attachment of a muscle
Muscle Origin = the proximal (toward the center of the body) attachment of a muscle
Multiaxial Joints = Such as the shoulder and hip (ball and socket). They allow movement about all three perdendicular axis.
NO = Nitric Oxide
NTH= Testosterone Enanthate
Neutral grip = a grip halfway between pronated and suppinated grip where the knuckles point laterally and the thumbs face up or away from the front of the body.
OTC= Over the counter
oz = ounces
PCT= post cycle therapy
PIN = Needle
Plane = a two-dimensional surface with an orientation defined by the spatial coordinates of three discrete points within the plane that are not all contained in the same line. In exercise, movement occurs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane, known as cardinal planes.
PR = Personal Record
PRIMO= Primobolan, Primobolan Depot
Pronated grip= palms facing down or away from body, or writst turned outwards away from one another
Pronation= Inward rotation of the forearm. Also describes a slight inward rolling motion the foot makes during a normal walking or running stride. The foot (and ankle) rolls slightly inward to accomodate movement. Some people, however, over-pronate and roll more than normal. With over-pronation, the arch of the foot flattens and causes excessive stress and pressure on the soft tissues of the foot. Over-pronation is more common in those with flat feet, and can lead to foot aches and pain, such as plantar fasciitis, Shin Splints and Knee Pain.
Prone = Lying face down, with the front or ventral surface downward, as opposed to supine.
PROP = Testosterone Propionate
Proximal = Toward the beginning, the nearer of two (or more) items. For example, the proximal end of the femur is part of the hip joint, and the shoulder is proximal to the elbow. Nearer to a point of reference such as an origin, a point of attachment, or the midline of the body. Closer to the trunk or midsagittal plane. The opposite of proximal is distal.
PS = Prosteroid
PWO= post work out
QD= once a day
QOD = Every other day
Recruitment = Refers to which and how many motor units are involved in a muscle contraction
RM = rep maximum (maximum weight at that number of reps)
ROM= Range of Motion
Rotation = movement about an axis (twisting the arm or trunk)
Sagittal Plane = (anteropsoterior or median cardinal plane) divides the body vertically into left and right halves, each half weighing the same. This line is imaginary so don't stare in the mirror looking for it or your eyes will cross.
Sarcoplasm = the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber, containing contractile components: protein filaments, other proteins, stored glycogen, fat particles, enzymes, mitochondria, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Subluxation = a partial displacement of the joint surfaces, often resulting in laxity or instability
Superior = upper (closer to the head), or above (as opposed to inferior)
Supine= Lying face up with the back or dorsal surface downwardas opposed to prone.
Suppination= Outward rotation of the forearm. This is the anatomical position. Also describes an excessive outward rolling motion the foot and ankle during a walking or running stride. This motion can place extra stress on the foot. Supination is more common in those with flat feet and can lead to foot aches and pain, such as Iliotibial Band Syndrome,[Plantar Fasciitis, Shin Splints and Knee Pain. Sometimes called under-pronation (or high arches).
Suppinated grip = palms facing up or towards body, or in other words, wrists turned inwards toward one another.
Synovial Joints = Joints which allow a great deal of movement, such as the elbows, knees, and shoulders. The main joints abourt which movements occur. These are either uniaxial, biaxial, or multiaxial joints.
SUST = Sustanon
Synergist = a muscle that assists indirectly in a movement.
T3 = Thyroid Hormone
Tendon = The tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone. A tendon is somewhat flexible, but fibrous and tough. The epimysium of the muscle is continuous with the tendon, which attaches to the bone’s periosteum.
TEST = Testosterone
Thoracic Spine = The area of the vertebral column commonly refered to as the mid and upper back, occupying the same level as the ribcage, and made up of 12 verebrae (T1 through T12). T1 begins at the level of the first rib and T12 sits on top of the first lumbar vetebra. Sometimes called T-Spine for short.
Transverse Plane = (horizontal cardinal) = line which separates the body into top and bottom halves of equal weight. Dewey Cox cut his brother in half along the transverse plane.
Uniaxial Joints = such as the elbow joint. They basically operate like hinges and rotate about only one axis.
Unilateral = One side
Valsalva Maneuver = this is basically attempting to exhale against a closed glottis. This is not just “holding one’s breath” but is the act of creating pressure in the chest so that the muscles of the abdomen and rib-cage can contract thus creating rigid compartments of fluid in the abdomen and air in the upper torso. Please note that it is NOT necessary to use the vasalva maneuver for the generation of abdominal pressure as this is a natural occurrence under muscle actions of the torso (see ‘intrabdominal pressure) but the valsalva can have some advantages in that it increase rigidity of the entire torso. There are many risks involved, however, and a knowledge and acceptance of these risks must accompany it’s use. It is not really necessary for lighter lifting. (Go here for some further discussion.)
Vertebral Column = consists of many vertebral bones separated by flexible discs, allowing some movement to occur. There are 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused together to form rear of pelvis) and 3 to 5 coccygeal (forming a vestigial internal tail) vertebrae. The vertebral column is naturally S-shaped being slightly kyphotic in the thoracis region and lordortic in the lumbar.
Volume= The amount of work performed in an exercise session. Traditionally calculated as the amount of weight lifted multiplied by the number of sets multiplied by the number of reps (i.e. total reps), time under tension and amount of rest between sets can also be considered as ways to increase or decrease volume.
WINNY = Winstrol-V (Stanozolol)
Deltoids Latissimus Dorsi
Pectoralis Major Trapezius/Rhomboids
Rectus Abdominis Erector Spinae
Iliopsoas Gluteus Maximus
Hip Adductor Gluteus Medius
Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius
Tone=frequently confused with "definition". Muscle tone is a physiologic term that refers to the constant, low-frequency contractions that occur in all muscles all the time, even at "rest", which prepare them for future activity. This continuous slight tension in torso muscles contributes to maintaining good posture. High-repetition exercises should increase muscle size, but will not improve the latter type of muscle "tone".
General Strength/Hypertrophy= a common goal of trainees who desire to increase muscle mass, and develop appreciable levels of muscular strength. This is used in preparation for other training methods or as a goal in itself for sports such as bodybuilding.
Maximal Strength=a common goal of trainees who desire to develop higher levels of muscular strength. This is used for those interested in increasing the ability to produce high levels of force for sports such as powerlifting.
Power= Power is the product of force and velocity and can be improved by two methods: 1) by increasing the amount of force one can produce or 2) by increasing the speed of movement. Strength Power focuses on improving the muscle's ability to produce force. This is used in preparation for most sports. The ability to produce very high levels of force at a high rate is a key determining factor in sport, and must not be neglected. Compensatory acceleration should always be used during the concentric portion regardless of bar speed. The intent to move the implement as fast as possible is a key determinant in power development. This applies to all training methods. POWER implies using intensities in which there is a more or less equal contribution from acceleration and strength (practically pounds of force against the implement).
Speed-Strength: This is speed training where there is relatively more contribution fro acceleration than force. This uses lower intensties than power training or strength-speed training. As mentioned above, power can be improved with two methods. Speed Power focuses on improving power by improving the rate of contraction of a muscle. This, again, is used in preparation for most sports. The ability to produce force quickly is the goal of this type of training.
Strength-speed: This is speed training where there is relatively more contribution from force rather than acceleration. Strength-speed training uses higher intensities than power training and of course speed-strength. It is important to realize that all speed training lies in a continuum of intensities where there is some overlap and differences among exercises and individuals.
Strength Endurance= a common goal for trainees who are looking to produce force over an extended period of time with minimal reduction in quality. This type of training is common for those athletes whose sport requires force production over an extended period of time, such as cyclists, long distance runners, and endurance event swimmers.
Power Endurance= a common goal for trainees who are looking to produce high levels of force at a high rate over an extended period of time with a minimal reduction in quality. This type of training is common for a wide variety of sports, including football, basketball, hockey, and tennis.
Periodization (general def)=training organized into specific blocks of time which are focused on specific skills. These blocks are known as the microcycle, mesocycle, and macrocycle. Linear peridization is the oldest and most commonly used. Other non-linear methods of periodization are congugate periodization (like Westside) and undulating periodization (such as recommended by Alwyn Cosgrove).
Intensiveness=the subjective feeling of the level of effort one is putting forth. Not to be confused with intensity as defined above.
Edit* In order to put in more definitions and organize things I have taken out the "contributed by" parts as it is getting everything out of alphabetical order. So this stuff was compiled by Sleazy, myself, BradG (any others please let me know).
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Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia which occurs due to cell division; hypertrophy occurs due to an increase in cell size rather than division. It is most commonly seen in muscle that has been actively stimulated, the most well-known method being exercise.
Hypertrophy is only desirable when it occurs in the skeletal muscles. This is most effectively done by undertaking resistance training, though it can also occur during other high anaerobic exercises such as interval training, rowing, cycling and sprinting.
For hypertrophy to occur in the skeletal muscles, the muscle must be directly stimulated as discussed above. Also a diet, in which there is a caloric surplus and abundant in protein is required in conjunction with regular rest (8-10 hours per night). Also you should consult with your physician before undertaking any strenuous exercise routine.
Hypertrophy can be pathological in many organs; for example in the heart hypertrophy of the left ventricle can be associated with up to a four fold risk of dying over the following 5 years. In skeletal muscle, it is usually helpful and increases strength.
Two different types of hypertrophy are common; Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, in which sarcoplasmic fluid in the muscle cell increases rather than the contractile protein, and hence no increase in contractile strength. Myofibrillar Hypertrophy, in which there is an increase in myofibrils, and hence increase in muscular contractile strength.
Resistance training typically produces a combination of the two different types of hypertrophy; contraction against 80-90% of the one repetition maximum for a lower number of repetitions causes myofibrillated hypertrophy to dominate (as in powerlifters, olympic lifters and strength athletes), while several repetitions against a sub-maximal load facilitates mainly sarcoplasmic hypertrophy (professional bodybuilders and endurance athletes).
Increased ventricular mass is an adaptation by the ventricle to increased stress, such as chronically increased volume load (preload) or increased pressure load (afterload). It is a physiological response that enables the heart to adapt to increased stress; however, the response can become pathological and ultimately lead to a deterioration in function. For example, hypertrophy is a normal physiological adaptation to exercise training that enables the ventricle to enhance its pumping capacity. This type of physiologic hypertrophy is reversible and non-pathological. Chronic hypertension causes ventricular hypertrophy. This response enables the heart to maintain a normal stroke volume despite the increase in afterload. However, over time, pathological changes occur in the heart that lead to a functional degradation and heart failure.
If the precipitating stress is volume overload, the ventricle responds by adding new sarcomeres in-series with existing sarcomeres. This results in ventricular dilation while maintaining normal sarcomere lengths. The wall thickness normally increases in proportion to the increase in chamber radius. This type of hypertrophy is termed eccentric hypertrophy.
In the case of chronic pressure overload, the chamber radius may not change; however, the wall thickness greatly increases as new sarcomeres are added in-parallel to existing sarcomeres. This is termed concentric hypertrophy. This type of ventricle is capable of generating greater forces and higher pressures, while the increased wall thickness maintains normal wall stress. This type of ventricle becomes "stiff" (i.e., compliance is reduced) which can impair filling and lead to diastolic dysfunction.
The first measurable effect is an increase in the neural drive stimulating muscle contraction. Within just a few days, an untrained individual can achieve measurable strength gains resulting from "learning" to use the muscle.
As the muscle continues to receive increased demands, the synthetic machinery is upregulated. Although all the steps are not yet clear, this upregulation appears to begin with the ubiquitous second messenger system (including phospholipases, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase, and others). These, in turn, activate the family of immediate-early genes, including c-fos, c-jun and myc. These genes appear to dictate the contractile protein gene response.
Finally, the message filters down to alter the pattern of protein expression. It can take as long as two months for actual hypertrophy to begin. The additional contractile proteins appear to be incorporated into existing myofibrils (the chains of sarcomeres within a muscle cell). There appears to be some limit to how large a myofibril can become: at some point, they split. These events appear to occur within each muscle fiber. That is, hypertrophy results primarily from the growth of each muscle cell, rather than an increase in the number of cells.
Penile Hypertrophy is the continual enlargement of a males penis.
Great Exercise Descriptions
Great Exercise Descriptions
Great website that shows detailed execution for a lot of different exercises.
Here's a hot chick doing Bulgarian Split Squats
It takes a little while to let it download so if it's blank, just give it time.
Here's another Exercise Directory that has most of the lifts covered and how to do them correctly...
Contributed by BradG:
Woulda been nice if they showed how to do the exercises. Or did I miss that?
Here is another site that shows stick-figure .gifs how to do the exercises. The nice thing about this is that all the lifts are on one page and you just mouse over them:
Training Station Exercises
Yes, this is a great web-site, one of the best I've seen.
Some very indepth learnin on this sight. Detailed articles on some olympic lifts. Worth checking out.
It would be like comparing a 1950's bodybuilding mag to the year 2000. I bullshit you not.
The nsca site is chocked full of good stuff.
I linked this becasue it has overhead squat video. Use the search to find other vids, articles, etc....just pick an exercise or whatever and see what they have.
Some of these can come in handy. The heat-stress index calculator could be very useful, for instance, for those of us pulling sleds and doing other strenuous training on hot summer days. You'll need to look up how to interpret the results..which is pretty straightforward.
And there is a wind-chill calculator.
And distance and volume conversions.
Useful info provided here
Also: Heat Acclimatization
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