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How does aerobic/anaerobic work affect metabolism?

Training discussion on How does aerobic/anaerobic work affect metabolism?, within the Bodybuilding Forum; Curious question here. In another thread in the Fatloss forum, Eric said this: "But I'd recommend a full-body routine with ...


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Old 10-07-2007, 07:09 PM   #1
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Default How does aerobic/anaerobic work affect metabolism?

Curious question here.

In another thread in the Fatloss forum, Eric said this:

"But I'd recommend a full-body routine with relatively low volume and compound exercises. That will allow the highest intensity and will therefore have a big effect on post exercise metabolism."

The last part interested me, mainly because I'm trying to burn off some fat myself to get ready for wrestling and so kickstarting my metabolism has been essential. I've been focusing mainly on cardio for that - both to burn fat and to keep my metabolism up - but also on different cross-training programs to get both aerobic and anaerobic work in.

But Eric's quote up top made me wonder: what effect do these different types of work have on metabolism after (and for how long)? Does a high-intensity, low-volume lift (focusing on compound movements) have the biggest effect on metabolism, or would a cardio-based program have a bigger effect? Related note - how long after doing any type of workout does your metabolism keep operating at a higher-than-usual rate?

I'd love to know some of this stuff to help burn off the fat, and if it's something that is in a sticky somewhere, yell at me and I'll get to reading

Thanks guys
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Old 10-08-2007, 09:48 AM   #2
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As far as the intensity of your resistance work I'm sure it is intense enough to fall under the category I'm talking about. Notice I said relatively low volume and really I meant relatively high intensity. I wouldn't go changing your resistance work if it is effective for you.

I am referring to the difference between the kind of work that consists of a couple of ultra light dumbells curled or even pressed for 15 to 20 reps (say 40 to 50%) for 2 to 4 sets as opposed to a heavier compound movement done for 8 reps for 2 to 4 sets (greater than 70%). And for a beginner a fullbody routine will allow the greatest intensity and workload for each workout as opposed to a split which will have the workload more variable. So I'm not really talking about doing heavy singles for fat-loss here .

Here is some stuff:

Afterburn Research Update by Vella and Kravitz

Studies

[1] Effect of intensity of exercise on excess postexercise O2 consumption.

Bahr R, Sejersted OM

Metabolism. 1991 Aug; 40(8):836-41.

After exercise, there is an increase in O2 consumption termed the excess postexercise O2 consumption (EPOC). In this study, we have examined the effect of exercise intensity on the time course and magnitude of EPOC. Six healthy male subjects exercised on separate days for 80 minutes at 29%, 50%, and 75% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) on a cycle ergometer. O2 uptake, R value, and rectal temperature were measured while the subjects rested in bed for 14 hours postexercise, and the results were compared with those of an identical control experiment without exercise. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 0.3 +/- 0.1 hour (29% exercise), 3.3 +/- 0.7 hour (50%) and 10.5 +/- 1.6 hour (75%) was observed. EPOC was 1.3 +/- 0.46 I(29%), 5.7 +/- 1.7 I (50%), and 30.1 +/- 6.4 I (75%). There was an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and total EPOC, both during the first 2 hours and the next 5 hours of recovery. Hence, prolonged exercise at intensities above 40% to 50% of VO2max is required in order to trigger the metabolic processes that are responsible for the prolonged EPOC component extending beyond 2 hours postexercise.

[2] Energy metabolism during the postexercise recovery in man

R Bielinski, Y Schutz and E Jequier

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1985; 40: 69-82.

In order to explore the magnitude and duration of the long-term residual effect of physical exercise, a mixed meal (55% CHO, 27% fat and 18% protein) was given to 10 young male volunteers on two occasions: after a 4-h resting period, and on the next day, 30 min after completion of a 3-h exercise at 50% VO2max. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were determined by indirect calorimetry for 17 h after meal ingestion. The fuel mix oxidized after the meal was characterized by a greater contribution of lipid oxidation to total energy expenditure when the meal was ingested during the post-exercise period as compared with the meal ingested without previous exercise. During the night following the exercise, the stimulation of energy expenditure observed during the early recovery period gradually faded out. However, resting energy expenditure measured the next morning was significantly higher (+4.7%) than that measured without previous exercise. It is concluded that intense exercise stimulates both energy expenditure and lipid oxidation for a prolonged period.

[3] Postexercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in young women resulting from exercise bouts of different intensity

J. F. Phelain, E. Reinke, M. A. Harris and C. L. Melby

Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1997; 16(2): 140-146.

OBJECTIVE: The effects of low and high intensity exercise, of similar energy output, on exercise and post-exercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were studied in eight active, eumenorrheic females (aged 22 to 31). METHODS: Continuous indirect calorimetry was performed during cycle ergometry exercise and for 3 hours following each of the following three protocols administered in random order: 1) low intensity exercise (LIE: 500 calories 50% VO2 max), 2) high intensity exercise (HIE: 500 calories 75% VO2 max), and 3) control condition (C) of quiet sitting for 1 hour, rather than exercise. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), energy expenditure and total fat and carbohydrate oxidation for the entire exercise/control plus 3-hour recovery period were determined by indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Mean EPOC for the 3-hour post-exercise period for HIE (9.0 +/- 1.7 L, 41 kcals) was significantly greater than EPOC for low intensity exercise (4.8 +/- 1.6 L, 22 kcals). Oxygen consumption (VO2) following HIE, but not LIE remained elevated at the end of the 3-hour post-exercise period. Total carbohydrate oxidation (exercise plus postexercise period) was significantly higher for HIE (116 +/- 8.6 g) compared to LIE (85.0 +/- 5.2 g). Total fat oxidation was lower for HIE (27.7 +/- 3.3 g) compared to LIE (36.9 +/- 3.0 g), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). At the end of the 3-hour recovery period, the rate of fat oxidation was higher following HIE compared to LIE. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the recovery period should also be considered when determining the impact of different exercise intensities on total energy expenditure and fat and carbohydrate utilization in women.

[4] Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism.

Tremblay A, Simoneau JA, Bouchard C.

Metabolism. 1994 Jul;43(7):814-8.

The impact of two different modes of training on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated in young adults who were subjected to either a 20-week endurance-training (ET) program (eight men and nine women) or a 15-week high-intensity intermittent-training (HIIT) program (five men and five women). The mean estimated total energy cost of the ET program was 120.4 MJ, whereas the corresponding value for the HIIT program was 57.9 MJ. Despite its lower energy cost, the HIIT program induced a more pronounced reduction in subcutaneous adiposity compared with the ET program. When corrected for the energy cost of training, the decrease in the sum of six subcutaneous skinfolds induced by the HIIT program was ninefold greater than by the ET program. Muscle biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis before and after training showed that both training programs increased similarly the level of the citric acid cycle enzymatic marker. On the other hand, the activity of muscle glycolytic enzymes was increased by the HIIT program, whereas a decrease was observed following the ET program. The enhancing effect of training on muscle 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) enzyme activity, a marker of the activity of beta-oxidation, was significantly greater after the HIIT program. In conclusion, these results reinforce the notion that for a given level of energy expenditure, vigorous exercise favors negative energy and lipid balance to a greater extent than exercise of low to moderate intensity. Moreover, the metabolic adaptations taking place in the skeletal muscle in response to the HIIT program appear to favor the process of lipid oxidation.

[5] Impact of high-intensity exercise on energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and body fatness

M Yoshioka, E Doucet, S St-Pierre, N Almeras, D Richard, A Labrie, JP Despres, C Bouchard and A Tremblay

International Journal of Obesity. 2001; 25: 332-339

OBJECTIVE: Two studies were conducted to assess the potential of an increase in exercise intensity to alter energy and lipid metabolism and body fatness under conditions mimicking real life.
METHODS: Study 1 was based on the comparison of adiposity markers obtained in 352 male healthy adults who participated in the Quebec Family Study who either regularly participated in high-intensity physical activities or did not. Study 2 was designed to determine the effects of high-intensity exercise on post-exercise post-prandial energy and lipid metabolism as well as the contribution of b-adrenergic stimulation to such differences under a real-life setting.
RESULTS: Results from Study 1 showed that men who regularly take part in intense physical activities display lower fat percentage and subcutaneous adiposity than men who never perform such activities, and this was true even if the latter group reported a lower energy intake (917 kJ=day, P<0.05). In Study 2, the high-intensity exercise stimulus produced a greater postexercise
post-prandial oxygen consumption as well as fat oxidation than the resting session, an effect which disappeared with the addition of propranolol. In addition, the increase in post-prandial oxygen consumption observed after the high-intensity exercise session was also signiĘcantly greater than that promoted by the low-intensity exercise session.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high-intensity exercise favors a lesser body fat deposition which might be related to an increase in post-exercise energy metabolism that is mediated by b-adrenergic stimulation.

[6] Long-term maintenance of weight loss: do people who lose weight through various weight loss methods use different behaviors to maintain their weight?
M T McGuire, R R Wing, M L Klem, H M Seagle and J O Hill International Journal of Obesity. 1998 June; 22(6): 572-577

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether individuals who lost weight on their own (b=447), through organized programs (b=313) or with liquid formula (b=133) would differ in the strategies they used to maintain their weight losses.

DESIGN: All subjects were members of the National Weight Control Registry, had lost 13.6 kg (30 pounds), and kept it off at least one year (mean weight loss=30.1±14.9 kg and mean duration of maintenance=5.7±6.9 y).

RESULTS: Liquid Formula users differed from the other two groups on many characteristics; they were more likely to be women, older, heavier, and to have had a medical disorder prior to weight loss. To maintain their weight loss, the Liquid Formula group reported greater use of dietary strategies (for example, counting calories, limiting the amount of calories from fat) and higher dietary restraint. Liquid Formula users reported that weight maintenance was more difficult than losing weight, whereas individuals who lost weight on their own reported the reverse. The On Own group reported expending a higher percentage of calories through strenuous activities such as running and weight lifting, and reported weighing themselves more frequently to maintain weight loss. Despite these behavioral differences, all three groups are maintaining their weight losses similarly by eating a low calorie diet (5792.3 kJ/d and 25% of daily calories from fat) and engaging in high levels of physical activity (11847.3 kJ/week).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite using different methods to lose weight, individuals who lost weight on their own, through an organized program, or with a liquid formula, use similar behavioral strategies to maintain their weight loss.


[7] A Comparison of the Effects of Interval Training vs. Continuous Training on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Obese Pre-Menopausal Women


Jeffrey W. King.

2001 May. Master's Thesis. Department of Physical Education, Exercise, and Sports Sciences. East Tennessee State University


The purpose of this study was to investigate the role exercise intensity plays in reducing bodyweight and percent body fat in overweight women. Subjects were randomized to either a high
intensity interval training group (IT) or a lower intensity steady state training group (ST). Each group exercised 3 times per week for 8 weeks and expended 300 kcal per exercise session. VO2max, body composition, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured pre and post training. RMR was measured after exercise at week 2 to see if intensity levels affected RMR. VO2max and body composition improved in IT but not in ST. Neither group showed a change in RMR from pretest to posttest; however, IT had an increase in RMR 24 hours post-exercise whereas ST did not. These findings show that high intensity interval exercise produces
improvements in body composition, fitness, and acute RMR compared to low intensity steady state training.


[8] A comparison of interval vs. steady-state exercise on substrate utilization in overweight women.

King, J; Broeder, C; Browder, K; Panton, L FACSM

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: Volume 34(5) Supplement 1 May 2002 p S130


PURPOSE:

This study investigated changes in substrate utilization during exercise following 8 weeks of interval versus steady-state training in 15 obese women. (Age: 33.8 ± 8.2 yr; HT: 165.7 ± 6.8 cm; WT: 88.0 ± 21.4 kg; BMI: 31.8 ± 6.6 kg/m2; % body fat: 42.9 ± 6.8%).
METHODS:

Subjects were randomized to either a high intensity interval group (IT (n = 7): 2 minutes at 95% of VO2 max alternating with 3 minutes of 25% of VO2 max) or a lower intensity steady state training group (ST (n = 8): 50% of VO2 max). There were no statistical differences between the IT and ST group prior to training in fitness or body composition. During training, each group was monitor by indirect calorimetry so they had the same mean intensity, duration, and caloric expenditure (300 kcals) during the workouts. VO2 (1/min and ml/kg/min), kcal/min, kcal/min/kgBW, and kcal/min/kgFFW were calculated at specific RER values 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95, and 1.00 both prior to and following training.
RESULTS:

The results indicated, that despite similar average exercise training intensities, only the IT group showed significant improvements after training. Using the 0.85 RER value (The cross-over point for fat to CHO usage), the IT showed a significant increase in VO2 (13.59 ± 3.85 to 16.53 ± 2.70 ml/kg/min; p < 0.05), kcal/min/kgBW (0.066 ± 0.18 to 0.081 ± 0.013; p < 0.05), and kcal/min/kgFFW (0.113 ± 0.026 to 0.143 to 0.018; p = 0.01) and trends toward significance in absolute VO2 (1.21 ± 0.26 to 1.49 ± 0.28 L/min; p = 0.08) & kcal/min (5.88 ± 1.27 to 7.26 ± 1.35; p = 0.08). Similar improvements were observed at 0.90 and 1.0 RER values. In contrast, no significant changes were found in the ST group.
CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that high intensity interval training independent of total workload, significantly improved caloric expenditure at a given RER value. Consequently, a significant increase in absolute fat utilization during submaximal exercise resulted which lead to improvements in fat losses in the IT group as we've previously reported (King, 2001 ACSM annual meeting).


[9] A role for high intensity exercise on energy balance and weight control.

GR Hunter, RL Weinsier, MM Bamman and DE Larson.

International Journal of Obesity 1998; 22: 489 - 493


The objective of this commentary is to remark on the impact, exercise intensity has on energy expenditure and its potential for body weight control. Exercise intensity can favorably impact on energy expenditure in a number of ways. First, exercise-associated energy expenditure is increased by decreasing exercise efficiency and increasing work rate. Second, resistance training that increases muscle mass, in turn increases resting energy expenditure. Third, aerobic exercise >70% VO2max, increases resting energy expenditure separate from any change in muscle mass. High intensity exercise training has the added benefit of improving fitness, thus making low-intensity exercise less difficult and more easily tolerated. Although continuous intense exercise is difficult to maintain for extended periods of time, intense interval exercise can be easily endured and may be an important adjunct to lifestyle modifications for body weight control.

EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY WEIGHT
TRAINING ON THE BODY COMPOSITION
OF OVERWEIGHT MEN
UDC 796: -055.1+613.25
Rahman Rahimi
Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Azad University Mahabad,
Mahabad, Iran
Email: Rahman.Rahimi@Yahoo.Com

Abstract. The optimal weight training intensity to improve body composition in
overweight men is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 12
weeks of high intensity versus moderate intensity weight training of equal work output
on body composition in overweight men (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2). Twenty sedentary men
(age: 27 ± 0.5 year; Body weight: 84 ± 1.43 kg; BMI: 28.23 ± 1.11 kg/m) were
randomized in two equal groups (n = 10): 1) moderate intensity exercise (MI; 5sets*6reps
[60% (1RM-1repetition maximum)]; and 2) high intensity exercise (HI; 5sets*6reps
[85% 1RM]). The weight training program was performed 3d.w . Relative body fat (%
BF) was assessed by a skin-fold caliper. Significant differences between and within the
groups were analyzed using a two-way split-plot analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Statistical significance was accepted at p<0.05. The two-way ANOVA showed
statistically significant differences between HI and MI groups, therefore, the Scheffe
Post-Hoc Test showed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the relative
body fat (BF) (D = 27%), percent of body fat (%BF) (22%), BMI (D = 9.34%), and
body weight (BW) (D = 6.51%) in the HI group during the course of the study than in
the MI group Also, comparison of means between the pre/post test showed statistically
significant decreases in skinfold thickness (HI = 45%, p = 0.001; MI = 25%, p = 0.02),
percent of body fat (HI = 41%, p = 0.001; MI = 23%, p = 0.04), BMI (HI = 21.5%,
p = 0.001; MI = 13.7%, p = 0.03), and body weight (HI = 21.58%, p = 0.001;
MI = 13.82%, p = 0.01) after participation in a 12-week weight training program. It is
concluded that 12 weeks of HI weight training may be more effective in improving body
composition than MI weight training in overweight young men with physical
characteristics similar to the ones found in the present study.

Full Paper

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If you act sanctimonious I will just list out your logical fallacies until you get pissed off and spew blasphemous remarks.
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Old 10-08-2007, 04:24 PM   #3
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Damn, that's a lot of great info. Thanks a lot man. It all seems to indicate that HIIT-based routines are best for losing fat... I'll have to read up on how to incorporate that into my workouts.
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